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Standards for All Types of Medical and Dental Diagnostic Radiology and Imaging Facilities

Administrative Policy:

Standards for All Types of Medical and Dental Diagnostic Radiology and Imaging Facilities

Effective Date:
January 24, 1998

Last Revised Date:
October 9, 2020

Scope:

All Facilities and Providers that provide radiology and/or diagnostic imaging services and participates in any of Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield of New Jersey or Horizon Healthcare of New Jersey (Collectively Horizon BCBSNJ) Networks.

Purpose:

To define the standards to evaluate outpatient diagnostic/ic radiology/ imaging services including the new digital radiography systems, fluoroscopy (including c-arm), interventional radiology, CT, MRI, ultrasound, echocardiography, mammography, nuclear medicine, nuclear cardiology, PET, PET/CT, and Cardiac in Diagnostic Radiology/Imaging Facilities/Freestanding-Physician Offices, Hospitals including Ambulatory Surgery Centers and Diagnostic Dental Offices and Radiation Oncology/Therapy providers.

To define the Federal and State laws and regulations, standards and guidelines applicable to outpatient radiology/diagnostic imaging services and standards established by nationally recognized and respected experts, agencies and professional associations focusing on quality management of radiology/diagnostic imaging. These laws, regulations, guidelines and standards are based on standards of practice for radiology/diagnostic imaging quality control, processor quality control, technologist training and certification, physician training and certification, radiation safety, radiographic quality, film standards, radiographic reporting, and film and record preservation.

To ensure that providers’ certifications and credentials of these services are valid and free of any restrictions.

Definitions:

  • Facility: Refers to hospital, Outpatient hospital based facility or skilled nursing facility.
  • ASC: Ambulatory Surgery Center
  • New Equipment: Not previously sold by manufacturer, not more than 14 months old and approved by the FDA – New equipment requirements are applicable to new services provided or reactivated service(s).
  • Radiology/Imaging Center: Free-standing or stand-alone imaging center not affiliated with hospital offering full service capabilities (at least three advance imaging service - AIS and one other imaging modality) i.e., CT, MRI, PET and Mammography.
  • Physician Office Setting: Physician, Specialist or Radiologist office based imaging (less than four modalities).
  • Radiation Oncology/Therapy Providers: Hospitals, Outpatient hospital based, free standing centers or specialty/physician office.

Accreditation and Certification Bodies/Agencies:

Horizon BCBSNJ has adopted the following nationally recognized agency guidelines* for assessment of diagnostic radiology imaging personnel and the respective facilities/freestanding-offices:

  • American Board of Radiology (ABR)
  • American College of Nuclear Medicine (ACNM)
  • American College of Radiology (ACR)
  • American Osteopathic Board of Radiology (AOBR)
  • American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonography (ARDMS)
  • American Osteopathic Board of Nuclear Medicine (AOBNM)
  • American Registry of MRI Technologists (ARMRIT)
  • American Board of Internal Medicine advanced certification in Cardiovascular Disease (ABIM)
  • American Board of Nuclear Medicine (ABNM)
  • American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT)
  • American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBS)
  • American Society of Nuclear Cardiology (ASNC)
  • American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO)
  • American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM)
  • American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE)
  • Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists (CAMRT)
  • Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH)
  • College des Medecins du Quebec (CMQ)
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • International Society of Bone Densitometry (ISCD)
  • Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC)
  • Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA)
  • New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP)
  • New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Standards for Licensure of Ambulatory Care Facilities (NJDOHSS)
  • New York State Department of Health (NYDOH)
  • Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
  • Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board (NMTCB)
  • Pennsylvania State Department of Health
  • Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada
  • The Joint Commission

Accreditation Modules

Modality Accreditation Body/Agency Modality Area/Detail
MRI Accreditation

American College of Radiology (ACR)

  • Body
  • Breast
  • Cardiac
  • Head
  • Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)
  • Musculoskeletal (MSK)
  • Spine

Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC)

  • Body
  • Breast
  • Cardiovascular
  • MRA
  • Musculoskeletal
  • Neurological

CT Accreditation

American College of Radiology (ACR)

  • Abdomen
  • Cardiac (Adult and/or Pediatric)
  • Chest
  • Head/Neck

Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC)

  • Coronary Calcium Scoring
  • Coronary CTA
  • Neurological
  • Maxillofacial
  • Body
  • Vascular CTA

PET Accreditation

American College of Radiology (ACR)

  • Brain
  • Cardiac
  • Oncology

Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC)

  • Oncologic Imaging - Neurologic
  • Neurologic Imaging
  • Cardiac Imaging
  • Other PET Imaging

Nuclear Medicine Accreditation

American College of Radiology (ACR)

  • General Nuclear Medicine (Planar)
  • Nuclear Cardiology
  • SPECT

Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC)

  • Nuclear Cardiology
  • General Nuclear Medicine

Ultrasound Accreditation

American College of Radiology (ACR)

  • General
  • Obstetrical
  • Trimester Specific Obstetrical
  • Gynecological
  • Vascular (Abdominal, Cerebrovascular, Peripheral, Deep Abdominal)
  • Breast Ultrasound
  • Breast Ultrasound with Biopsy
  • Pediatric

Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC)

  • Extracranial Cerebrovascular
  • Intracranial Cerebrovascular
  • Peripheral Arterial
  • Peripheral Venous
  • Visceral Vascular

American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM)

  • Abdominal/General
  • Adjunct Competence in 3D (GYN – Adjunct Detailed Fetal Anatomic US
  • Breast
  • Breast: Diagnostic
  • Breast: Interventional
  • Dedicate Thyroid/Parathyroid
  • Fetal Echocardiography
  • Gynecologic
  • Head and neck
  • MSK (Diagnostic)
  • MSK (US-guided Interventional Procedures)
  • Obstetric
  • Obstetric 1st Trimester
  • Obstetric 2nd Trimester
  • Obstetric 3rd Trimester
  • Regional Anesthesia (US)
  • Urology

American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBS)

  • Breast Ultrasound
  • Diagnostic and Interventional

Echocardiography Accreditation

Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC)

  • Adult Transthoracic
  • Adult Transesophageal
  • Adult Stress
  • Pediatric Transthoracic
  • Pediatric Transesophageal
  • Fetal

Mammography Accreditation

American College of Radiology (ACR)

  • Mammography
Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Accreditation

American College of Radiology (ACR)

  • Stereotactic Breast Biopsy

American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBS)

  • Stereotactic Breast Biopsy

Policy:

  1. Facilities, free standing radiology/diagnostic imaging centers physician offices and radiation therapy providers performing radiology/imaging services or radiation therapy/oncology must comply with the quality standards set forth in the table below. New or newly installed used equipment wherein accreditation is required, must have an application submitted to the accrediting organization within three (3) months of first clinical use. All other equipment that is not subject to accreditation must comply with standards as set forth below without exception or modality privileges will be deactivated. In addition, all radiology/imaging centers must have undergone a site visit by Horizon BCBSNJ or designated representative prior to approval of participation for the contracted radiology/imaging center.

    Ambulatory Surgery Centers providing any imaging may be subject to a site visit and must comply with Horizon BCBSNJ’s quality standards as set forth in this document. Cardiologist or providers performing nuclear stress test and approved mobile providers may be subject to a site visit as needed and must adhere to the quality standards set forth.

    Providers must maintain current and unrestricted licenses, certifications and credentials associated with sites and equipment. Compliance with these requirements is mandatory for participation but is not a guarantee for acceptance. All radiology/imaging facilities must complete a credentialing or recredentialing application that is used by Horizon BCBSNJ to evaluate network participation and adherence to our quality standards. Completion of the Assessment of a radiology center/office is not a guarantee that the facility will receive participation into our network. An application request for assessment will need to be completed in compliance with our re-credentialing policies and must be amended and resent to Horizon BCBSNJ with any changes to equipment, ownership or change of accreditation status. In addition, any provider performing imaging in compliance with the Privileging Policy scope of services must adhere to all quality standards including the completion of an Assessment. All providers of radiology/imaging are subject to an initial site visit, a site visit at least every 36 months thereafter and spot audits as needed.

    Radiologist providing interpretation or teleradiography providers must complete the application request for assessment by emailing eviCore at credentialing@evicore.com.

    Horizon BCBSNJ may request data periodically pertaining to the Standards to determine compliance.

  2. MODALITY GRID

    All modalities require a QA Program and DICOM capability.

    Modality/Procedure/
    Therapy
    State
    License
    NJDEP Registration Accreditation/
    Registration
    FDA1 ALARA2/Image Gently
    and Image Wisely
    General Radiography X X N/A   X
    Fluoroscopy &/ C-Arm X X N/A   X
    Interventional X   N/A   X
    Stereotactic X X X X X
    Mammography (Analog & Digital) X X X X X
    DXA X X N/A   X
    Ultrasound (US)     X   N/A
    Ultrasound Breast     X    
    Ultrasound Vascular     X    
    Echocardiography     X   N/A
    Computerized Tomography (CT) including CTA X X X   X
    Cardiac CT Angiography (CCTA) X X X   X
    Coronary Arteriography (CTCA) X X X   X
    MRI/MRA X X X X N/A
    Cardiac MRI X X X    
    PET X X X   X
    PET/CT X X X   X
    Cardiac PET X X X   X
    Nuclear Medicine X   X   X
    Nuclear Cardiac Imaging X   X   X
    Cardiac Catheterization X   X   X
    Radiation Therapy (IMRT, EBRT, PBRT, Gamma X   X X X

    Food and Drug Administration

    As Low As Reasonably Achievable “Radiation Safety

  3. Additional areas of compliance which are inclusive within many of the accreditation agency requirements are listed below must be available upon request when applicable to site:

    • OSHA Compliance
    • Blood Borne Pathogens Compliance
    • Fire Safety and Disaster Procedures and Policies
    • Emergency Cart
    • Equipment and Patient Safety Procedures and Policies
    • Incident reporting
    • Patient and drug reactions
    • Complaints
    • Chemical hazards safety plan
    • Quality control policies and procedures
    • Image labeling policies
    • Film processor, printer, and/or PACS maintenance policies
    • Physician Site Coverage Policy
    • Medical Records Policy
    • Radiation Safety
    • Nuclear Medicine Spills Policy
    • HIPAA and Medical Record Retention/Release Policies and Procedures
    • Contrast Media/Radiopharmaceutical Policy/Conscious Sedation/analgesia/Results Reporting
    • Interpretation, Reporting and Peer Review Policies and Procedures
    • Guidelines for Communication of Diagnostic/Imaging Findings
    • Annual MRI safety training and signage of MRI safety zones is required
    • MRI Patient Screening
    • Written Techniques/Protocols for each exam type
    • Holding Policy
    • Practice Quality Improvement Policy

    In addition, all licenses are non-transferrable; therefore time share, table time or equipment leases, other than direct leases with a manufacturer or financing company, whether or not on per diem basis, is not permitted.

  4. MOBILE IMAGING EQUIPMENT POLICY

    Mobile imaging equipment is not generally acceptable and will be reviewed on a case by case basis for the following place of service locations where the patient is unable to travel due to a medical condition:

    • Home
    • Assisted Living Facility
    • Skilled Nursing Facility
    • Nursing Facility
    • Custodial Care Facility
    • Hospice

    In areas that Horizon BCBSNJ designate as under-served (where availability of imaging services is limited), the following sites will be allowed the use of mobile imaging for:

    • office or
    • outpatient hospital
    • Screening mammography clinic provided by facilities that are:
      • specifically contracted for mobile services
      • FDA/MQSA certified, and
      • ACR
    • Temporary equipment as approved by Horizon BCBSNJ.
  5. CREDENTIALING/RECREDENTIALING:

    • All authorized Mobile Equipment must comply with all Horizon BCBSNJ quality, personnel and equipment standards specific to the approved modality. Please refer to appropriate section below for compliance.
    • The mobile imaging services will be evaluated per location and credentialed for the site of service.
  6. PRACTICE/SITE/TECHNOLOGISTS REQUIREMENTS:

    • An initial application, and every three years thereafter or whenever there is a change in ownership, TIN, NPI, physician or technologist staff, address, equipment or services provided.
    • Equipment that has been determined “end of life” and is not currently supported by the manufacturer does not meet Horizon BCBSNJ quality standards.
    • All CT, MRI, Ultrasound, Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT scanners must be accredited for all applicable accreditation modules by either the American College of Radiology (ACR), the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM), the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC) or the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBS) and The Joint Commission (TJC). If a radiology site performs echocardiography, accreditation by the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC) is required. Accreditation must include the appropriate modules for exams being performed.
    • Any accreditation body or/state approved as an accrediting agency by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to administer requirements of the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA).
    • Practices will be expected to divulge ownership interest information about the facility in its entirety. Facilities that own and operate imaging equipment will not be unduly influenced by business arrangements with other physicians or practices.
    • Facilities must participate in Medicare
    • Facilities must ensure that they have not been excluded, sanctioned or opted out of Medicare before applying to the network. If any of these situations exist, an approval will not be granted.
    • Facility shall maintain professional liability insurance that is required by applicable state law or at a minimum of $1,000,000 per claim and $3,000,000 in the annual aggregate. If site doesn’t carry professional liability, it will be required that all interpreting MD or DO’s submit a copy of professional liability insurance showing a minimum of $1,000,000 per claim and $3,000,000 in the annual aggregate.
    • Facility shall maintain comprehensive general liability insurance at minimum levels required by Payer, but in no event less than $1,000,000 per claim and $3,000,000 in the annual aggregate.
    • Facility’s insurance shall cover the acts and omissions of its agents and employees and will ensure that participating providers have adequate coverage.
  7. ROUTINE APPOINTMENT SCHEDULING STANDARDS

    Modality # of Business Days
    MRI 5
    CT 5
    PET 5
    Nuclear Medicine 7
    Ultrasound 5
    Mammography 3
    Mammography Screening 100
    General Radiography 2
  8. FACILITY STANDARDS

    • Each practice must show evidence of an ongoing Practice Quality Improvement Project and such projects should be consistent with the maintenance of certification requirements set forth by the specialty boards identified above as applicable.
    • Practices utilizing ionizing radiation are required to be participants in the Image Gently and Image Wisely programs. Compliance with these programs must be maintained and a medical physicist statement of compliance with these programs is required.
      • Protocols and techniques for adult and pediatric exams must be posted in all imaging suites.
    • All practices must have the ability to submit images electronically for quality evaluation, when requested (the ability to create (“burn”) CDs and have Internet access).
    • The Practice Guidelines and Technical Standards published by the accrediting organizations must be met at all times as applicable.
    • Practices must have a formal physician peer review program. The results of this program must be available on request.
    • Imaging reports must be consistent with the ACR’s Practice Parameters for the Communication of Diagnostic Imaging Findings.
    • Breast imaging reports must use the ACR’s BIRADS lexicon for mammography, breast ultrasound and breast MRI.
    • Any practice performing breast MRI must also perform mammography, breast ultrasound services and MRI breast guided biopsy.
    • Facilities performing breast MRI must also perform mammography, breast ultrasound, and breast MRI guided biopsy or have a formal referral arrangement with another facility that is accredited for breast MRI, to accept biopsy cases without the need to repeat the diagnostic exam.
    • All MRI reports must use the terminology defined in the ACR’s Glossary of MRI Terms. The glossary is available on the ACR’s website at: http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/PDF/QualitySafety/Resources/GlossaryOfMRTe rms.pdf
    • 80% of non-emergent and non-expedited cases (except screening mammography) must be interpreted and reports transmitted to referring physicians within 1 business day of the procedure being completed. However all studies must be reviewed by a board certified radiologist the day of completion to be sure that there are no unexpected findings that require immediate attention and communication to the referring provider. Screening mammography must be interpreted and reports transmitted to referring providers within 10 business days.
    • Each of the practice’s sites must be staffed by a board certified radiologist for all hours of operation either in person or by teleradiology. If a teleradiology service is utilized, the teleradiologist must be licensed in the state where the imaging facility is located.
    • A physician with training and knowledge in the treatment of contrast reactions and, at least one member of staff with current Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) or Advanced Radiology Life Support (ARLS) must be onsite whenever contrast is administered.
    • Each site of service providing general radiography and fluoroscopy services must employ only technologists who are certified in Radiography (RT) by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT).
    • Each site of service providing ultrasound must employ technologists who are certified by the American Registry of Diagnostic Medical Sonographers (ARDMS), or the ARRT in- Sonography (S) or Cardiovascular Credentialing International (CCI) as a Registered Cardiac Sonographer (RCS) or a Registered Vascular Sonographer (RVS). There must be at least one sonographer certified in each ultrasound specialty area performed at the site (see grid below for all sonography specialty areas). (For example, if vascular ultrasound is performed at a site, at least one of the sonographers at that site must be certified in vascular ultrasound.)
    • Each site of service providing CT Services must have at least one technologist that has current ARRT-CT certification.
    • Each site of service providing Cardiac CT and CCTA must have at least one technologist that meets the following requirements and have supporting documentation on site:
      • Technologist trained in cardiac CT
      • Senior cardiac technician to document the performance of daily calibration of scanner(s)
      • Training in the use of a powered dual-head contrast injector
    • Each site of service providing MRI services must have at least one technologist with current ARRT certification in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MR) or the American Registry of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists (ARMRIT).
    • Each site of service providing Nuclear Medicine services must have at least one technologist with current ARRT certification in Nuclear Medicine (N) or be certified by the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board (NBTCB)
    • A physician with training and knowledge in the treatment of contrast reactions and, at least one member of staff with current Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) or Advanced Radiology Life Support (ARLS) must be onsite whenever contrast is administered.
    • Each site of service providing PET services must have at least one technologist with current certification in PET from the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board (NMTCB-PET) or have ARRT Nuclear Medicine (N) certification.
    • Each site of service providing DXA services must have at least one technologist with current certification from the ARRT (ARRT-R, AART-BD or ARRT-N), International Society for Clinical Densitometry – Certified Bone Densitometry Technologist (ISCD –CBDT) certification or the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board (NMTCB-N) by the DXA exams must be performed by a radiologist.
    • For practices providing mammography services all technologists must have current certification in mammography from the ARRT (ARRT-M).
  9. SUMMARY OF TECHNOLOGISTS CERTIFICATIONS

    MODALITY ARRT ARMRIT NMTCB ARDMS CCI ISCD
    MRI ARRT - MR ARMRIT- MRI        
    CT ARRT - CT          
    PET ARRT - N   NMTCB - PET      
    Nuclear Medicine ARRT - N   NMTCB - N      
    Ultrasound ARRT - S     RDMS RVS  
    Breast US ARRT - breast sonography          
    Echocardiography ARRT - cardiac interventional sonography     RDCS RCS  
    Mammography ARRT - M          
    X-ray ARRT - R          
    DXA ARRT - R   NMTCB - N     CBDT
  10. PHYSICIAN AND RADIOLOGY ASSISTANT REQUIREMENTS

    1. 10.1. Physicians
      Physicians must meet the following. Board certification in radiology or diagnostic radiology, nuclear radiology, or nuclear medicine by:

      • American Board of Radiology,
      • American Board of Nuclear Medicine,
      • American Osteopathic Board of Radiology,
      • American Osteopathic Board of Nuclear Medicine
      • American Board of Internal Medicine with Cardiovascular Disease certification
      • Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, or
      • Le College des Medicins du Quebec

      If not board certified, the radiologist must be board certified within 24 months from the time of completing a radiology residency.

      • Each physician must provide a copy of a current board certification certificate along with the Application. Board recertification is required for those with time limited certificates. These documents must be available upon request.
      • All physicians must be able to document at least 50 hours of continuing medical education (CME) hours, at least 25 of which must be Category 1, that are approved by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) annually or 100 hours every 2 years or 150 hours every 3 years. Certificates documenting these CME activities must be available if requested. For those with fellowship training at least half of those hours must be in their sub specialty area.
      • All radiologists interpreting breast imaging must meet the requirements of MQSA.
      • All radiologists performing CT Colonography (CTC) must be able to document the following training and experience:
        • CME training course to include a minimum of 75 proven cases
        • Mentoring of a minimum of 50 cases post initial training and prior to independent interpretation
        • Interpret or co-interpret a minimum of 50 cases per year
        • If a physician cannot document 50 cases per year beginning January 2009 then he/she will be required to document evidence of at least 15 hours of CME training in virtual colonoscopy every three years.
        • An annual medical audit of all CT Colonography cases must be maintained

      Recommendations

      • It is encouraged each radiology practice to have available at least one fellowship trained physician within each subspecialty area the practice performs (e.g. neuroradiology, breast imaging, musculoskeletal radiology, pediatric radiology, nuclear radiology, vascular and interventional radiology or abdominal radiology).
      • All fellowship trained physicians must submit written documentation of completion of the fellowship
    2. 10.2. Radiology Assistants
      All Radiology Assistants (R.A.) be certified by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (RT), maintain current registration and have at least 50 hours of appropriate continuing education (CE) every 2 years. Documentation of CE must be available upon request.

  11. EQUIPMENT STANDARDS

    Equipment and accreditation standards must be met at all times. All MRI, CT, PET/CT, nuclear medicine, ultrasound and x-ray devices must be DICOM compatible. These standards are subject to regular and/or as needed review and will change as hardware and software technology evolves, and quality standards from appropriate accrediting organizations, such as the ACR, IAC, AIUM and/or ASBS.

    The following documentation must be available for inspection at the site at any time. The documents must be signed and dated by the individual performing the tests.

    1. 11.1. X-Ray (General)

      • Must be staffed by a NJ licensed Radiologic Technologist
      • Recommended that all new units have built in low-dose scanner preventive capabilities to prevent accidental radiation overexposure. These features are known as the automated exposure control units (AEC).
      • Thyroid and other body shields should be made available to all patients to reduce the exposure of background or scatter radiation where applicable.
    2. 11.2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

      • Devices with field strength greater than 3.0 T, and for which ACR and IAC accreditation is not yet available, will be accepted pending the availability of accreditation.
      • All MRI scanners must be capable of performing Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI).
      • Devices with Field Strength of less than 0.3T are not permitted.
      • Devices with field strengths of <1.0 T are limited to performing examinations of the brain, spine, knees and extremities. If the devices described have gradient strengths of at least 20mT/meter and slew rates of at least 45T/meter/sec, the site may apply to perform MRI of the Body and/or MRA studies by submitting images demonstrating their current capacity to perform at acceptable quality levels, as determined by Horizon BCBSNJ.
      • Devices with field strengths of 1.0 T or greater may perform all examinations (other than Breast and Cardiac MRI), as long as Horizon BCBSNJ quality standards are met. In order to perform Breast and Cardiac MRI, additional criteria must be met (see those modality-specific standards set forth in this policy).
      1.  
      2. 11.2.1. MRI Quality Control and Preventative Maintenance The following documentation must be available for inspection at the site at any time. The documents must be signed and dated by the individual performing the tests.
      3.  
        • Preventive maintenance records demonstrating
          • Maintenance of hardware at original specifications at a minimum.
          • All major software upgrades, if available, must be not more than five (5) years old.
          • Quality Control testing in accordance with the requirements of the ACR or IAC MRI Accreditation Programs is required.
        • Performance/ Quality Control testing report to include:
          • Equipment is functioning per manufacturer’s specifications and meets all applicable accreditation standards
          • Weekly technologist testing as required per the ACR Guideline o Log of all service records
            • Records of initial acceptance testing for units installed within the last year
            • Annual physicist’s report demonstrating compliance with ACR or IAC standards. Medical Physicist Reports must be examined and contemporaneously signed by the MD Director of Radiology at each site. The physician's signature and the date of the MD review must be placed on the report to reflect evidence of the review.
          • MRI equipment must meet all state and federal performance requirements, including those for:
            • Maximum static magnetic field strength
              • Maximum rate of change of magnetic field strength (dB/dt)
              • Maximum radiofrequency power disposition (specific absorption rate)
              • Maximum auditory noise levels
      4.  
      5. 11.2.2 Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging
        Facilities performing breast MRI must have the equipment and expertise to perform mammographic correlation, directed breast ultrasound and MRI-guided intervention within the practice.

      6. All standards for MRI must be met in addition to the following standards for Breast MR imaging:
        • Any device used for breast MRI must:
          • have a dedicated bilateral breast coil.
          • be capable of simultaneous, bilateral imaging.
          • produce images with a slice thickness =/< 3mm and an in-planar pixel resolution of =/< 1mm
          • utilize fat suppression on all contrast enhanced sequences.
          • have the ability to perform MRI-guided biopsy intervention (Note: if the device lacks such ability, the facility must have a referral arrangement with a cooperating facility that can provide these services).
        • MR equipment must meet all state and federal performance requirements, including those for:
          • maximum static magnetic field strength
          • maximum rate of change of magnetic field strength (dB/dt)
          • maximum radiofrequency power deposition (specific absorption rate)
          • maximum auditory noise levels.
        • Quality Assurance:
          • Facilities must establish and maintain a medical outcomes audit program to follow up positive and negative results and to correlate pathology results with the interpreting physician’s findings.
          • Facilities must use the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) final assessment codes and terminology for reporting and tracking outcomes.
          • The following documentation must be available for inspection at the site at any time. The documents must be signed and dated by the individual performing the tests.
            • Preventive maintenance records
            • Log of all service records
            • Annual physicist’s report/performance testing. This report should include information indicating that the equipment is functioning per manufacturer’s specifications and meets all applicable accreditation standards. Medical Physicist Reports must be examined and contemporaneously signed by the MD Director of Radiology at each site. The physician's signature and the date of the MD review must be placed on the report to reflect evidence of the review.
            • Records of initial acceptance testing installed within the last year.
            • Quality Control testing in accordance with the
              requirements of the ACR Accreditation Program.
      7.  
    1. 11.3. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    2. All standards for MRI must be met in addition to the following for Cardiac Testing:
      • All devices used for cardiac MR Imaging must possess a 1.5T or greater magnet field strength with a slew rate of at least 70mT/meter/sec.
      • Any device used for cardiac work must be capable of EKG gating, including prospective, retrospective and triggered retrogating. Newly purchased scanners must have Vectorcardiographic gating.
      • Device must have an MRI-compatible power injector.
      • MRI used for cardiac testing must have FDA-approved processing software for calculation of the ejection fraction and reformatting the angiographic data.

      The following documentation must be available for inspection at the site at any time. The documents must be signed and dated by the individual performing the tests.

      • Preventive maintenance records
      • Log of all service records
      • Annual physicist’s report/performance testing. This report should include information indicating that the equipment is functioning per manufacturer’s specifications and meets all applicable accreditation standards. Medical Physicist Reports must be examined and contemporaneously signed by the MD Director of Radiology at each site. The physician's signature and the date of the MD review must be placed on the report to reflect evidence of the review.
      • Records of initial acceptance testing installed within the last year
      • Quality Control testing in accordance with the requirements of the ACR/IAC Accreditation Programs.
    3.  
    4. 11.4. Diagnostic Computed Tomography and CCT/CCTA Cardiac
    5.  
      1. 11.4.1. CT and Coronary CT Angiogrpahy (CCT & CCTA)
        • Thyroid and other body shields should be made available to all patients to reduce the exposure of background or scatter radiation where applicable.

        Reporting Request:

        • Reporting Format: As part of the cardiology quality assurance program, periodically you may be requested to submit: Cardiac CT studies for our review. Evaluation of these studies will determine the quality of the images, accuracy of the interpretation, adherence to contraindications and to assure that the reporting format in accordance with the requirements (listed below).
          • Native vessels: Report calcium score with calcium mass and volume per vessel. Discuss dominance, overall vessel size and number of diagonals and obtuse marginal, describe any anatomic variants. Describe lesion location by segment. Describe plaque composition as calcified, non-calcified or mixed. Describe severity as: Minimal; Mild: ~20-30%; Mild-moderate ~30-50%; Moderate ~ 50%; Mod-severe ~50-75%; or Severe > 75%.
          • Discuss limitations of the study if any (blooming artifact, motion, quantum mottle).Stents: Report location, patency, and any limitations of interpretation.
          • Bypass grafts: Report location, patency, and any lesions in the native vessels distal to the graft touchdown point. Report any limitations of interpretation (i.e. clip artifact)
          • LV function: Report EF, ES volume and ED volume when appropriate acquisition phases of data are available. Evaluate and report any apparent sub endocardial perfusion defects, any regions of myocardial or septal thinning or hypertrophy, and any abnormalities of myocardial contractility. Evaluate valve morphology and motion and report any apparent abnormalities when appropriate.
        • Cardiac Imaging Specialist/Nurse/Physician Assistant:
          • Cardiac Imaging Specialist should have documentation of the following:
            • Documentation of completion of a minimum of 100 Cardiac CT examinations at a facility under direct supervision of a CIS including the acquisition and interpretation of the cases.
            • Letter documenting involvement in at least 200 Cardiac CT cases involving the interpretation of the examination.
            • Proof of 40 hours of category I CME Credits in Cardiac CT.
            • Documentation of training specifically in Cardiac CT.
            • Documentation of completed fellowship training
            • Copy of Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS) Certificate
            • Documentation of supervised experience in the performance of Catheter or CT angiograms.
            • Document of training in the use of all necessary pharmaceuticals.
          • Nurse / Physician Assistant should have documentation of the following:
            • Copy of State license.
            • Copy of Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support Certificate (ACLS).
            • Documentation of training in the use of a powered dual head contract injector.
            • Supervision of contrast and /or medication administration.
      2.  
      3. 11.4.2. CCT and CCTA Equipment
      4.  
        • A multi-detector CT scanner capable of creating a minimum of sixty four (64) slices per gantry rotation is required.
        • Complete gantry rotation should take no longer than 0.42 seconds.
        • Tube heat capacity must allow for a single < 20 second acquisition.
        • Minimum section thickness should be no greater than 1.0 mm.
        • The CT scanner used for CCTA must allow display and interpretation of the full 12 bits (from - 1000 to 3095 Hounsfield Units) of attenuation information.
        • The display field of view must be sufficient to allow an assessment of the vasculature of interest, the end-organ, and adjacent tissues.
        • For cardiac and some ascending aortic CTA, an ECG-gated acquisition should be performed that allows retrospective reconstruction of the scan volume at multiple phases through the cardiac cycle.
        • A powered dual-head contrast medium injector that allows programming of both the volume and flow rate must be used for CCTA examinations.
        • An independent workstation capable of creating volume renderings or shaded-surface displays, maximal intensity projections, and multi-planar reformations must be available for CT examination analysis.
        • The workstation should also allow the direct measurement of vascular dimensions and, when appropriate, path lengths and angles.

        CTA and CCTA Quality Control and Preventative Maintenance

        • Quality Control testing must be in accordance with the requirements of the ACR/IAC CT Accreditation Programs.
        • The following documentation must be available for inspection at the site at any time. The documents must be signed and dated by the individual performing the tests.
          • Preventive maintenance records
          • Log of all service records
          • Annual physicist’s report and performance testing. This report should include that equipment is functioning per manufacturer’s specifications and meets all applicable accreditation standards. Medical Physicist Reports must be examined and contemporaneously signed by the MD Director of Radiology at each site. The physician's signature and the date of the MD review must be placed on the report to reflect evidence of the review.
          • Records of initial acceptance testing for units installed within the last year.
          • All other Quality Control testing in accordance with the requirements of the ACR/IAC CT Accreditation Programs
      5.  
      6. 11.4.3. Diagnostic Computed Tomography (CT)
      7.  
        • Adherence to the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle as well as a medical physicist statement that the CT protocols comply with the ALARA principles.
        • Thyroid and other body shields should be made available to all patients to reduce the exposure of background or scatter radiation where applicable.

        CT Equipment

        • For non-angiographic CT scanning, there must be a minimum of 4 slices per rotation.
        • In addition to the above requirements, for Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA) there must be a minimum of 16 slices per rotation.
        • In addition to the above requirements, for Cardiac CTA there must be a minimum of 64 slices per rotation.
        • See Horizon BCBSNJ Equipment Standard for Cardiac CT and Coronary CT Angiography. Note: These standards also apply to all PET/CT scanners unless the CT portion of the scanner is NEVER utilized for diagnostic CT scanning. CT equipment specifications and performance must meet all applicable ACR Practice Guidelines and Technical Standards.

        CT Quality Control and Preventative Maintenance

        • Quality Control testing must be in accordance with the requirements of the ACR/IAC CT Accreditation Programs
        • The following documentation must be available for inspection at the site at any time. The documents must be signed and dated by the individual performing the tests.
          • Preventive maintenance records.
          • Log of all service records.
          • Annual physicist’s report and performance testing. This report should include that equipment is functioning per manufacturer’s specifications and meets all applicable accreditation standards. Medical Physicist Reports must be examined and contemporaneously signed by the MD Director of Radiology at each site. The physician's signature and the date of the MD review must be placed on the report to reflect evidence of the review.
          • Records of initial acceptance testing for scanners installed within the last year.
          • All other Quality Control testing in accordance with the requirements of the ACR Practice Guideline for the Performance of Diagnostic CT.
      8. 11.4.4. CT Colonography (CTC or VC)

        CT Scanner

        • Sixteen (16) slice or greater multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is required.
        • Must be able to scan entire abdomen and pelvis in a single breath hold with a slice thickness of ≤2.5mm.
        • Images must be reconstructed at a slice thickness of ≤1.5 mm.3

        Work Station

        • Work station must have specific CT colonography software.
        • The software must be capable of simultaneously integrating 2D and 3D images of the colon.

        Physician Training and Experience

        • Minimum of fifty (50) cases per year to maintain Horizon BCBSNJ accreditation.
        • If a physician cannot document fifty (50) cases per year beginning January 2009 then he/she will be required to document evidence of at least fifteen (15) hours of CME training in virtual colonoscopy every three (3) years.
        • An annual medical audit must be maintained.
        • Initially, privileges to perform virtual colonoscopy can be obtained if the following requirements are met:
          • Meets the ACR minimum standards for a reader of CT studies
          • Fifteen (15) hours of CME in CT every three (3) years
          • Evidence of a training course in virtual colonoscopy to include a minimum of 50 proven cases in the last five (5) years
          • Mentoring of a minimum of fifty (50) cases post initial training and prior to independent interpretation
          • Evidence of primary reader of fifty (50) virtual colonoscopy studies in the last three (3) years
    6.  
    7. 11.5. Nuclear Medicine and Cardiac Nuclear Medicine
    8.  
      1. 11.5.1. Nuclear Medicine
      2.  
        • New service or requests for renewed service after service lapse must have single photon- emission positron computed tomography (SPECT) capability.
        • For centers performing general SPECT studies, an existing single head camera is acceptable, but for all new replacement equipment dual headed cameras are required.
        • Collimator Requirements:
          • LEHR Low Energy – for High Resolution studies
          • Medium Energy – for Indium and Gallium studies
          • High Energy - for centers performing Iodine 131 whole body studies
        • Quality Assurance Requirements:
          • Automatic Integral & Field Uniformity must meet manufacturer specifications.
          • COR (Center of Rotation) must meet the manufacturer specifications.
          • See Horizon-BCBSNJ Equipment Standards for Cardiac Nuclear Medicine below

        Nuclear Medicine Quality Control and Preventative Maintenance Quality Control testing must be in accordance with the requirements of the ACR or IAC Nuclear Medicine Accreditation Programs.

        Note: for SPECT systems Quality Control: for ACR and IAC accredited sites overall system performance testing with an approved phantom must be in accordance with the accrediting organizations standards.

        • The following documentation must be available for inspection at the site at any time. The documents must be signed and dated by the individual performing the tests.
        • Preventive maintenance records
        • Log of all service records
        • Annual physicist’s report and performance testing. This report should include information indicating that equipment is functioning per manufacturer’s specifications and meets all applicable accreditation standards. Medical Physicist Reports must be examined and contemporaneously signed by the MD Director of Radiology at each site. The physician's signature and the date of the MD review must be placed on the report to reflect evidence of the review.
        • Records of initial acceptance testing installed within the last year.
        • All other Quality Control testing in accordance with the requirements of the ACR Practice Parameters for Performance of Nuclear Medicine and IAC Accreditation Program.
      3.  
      4. 11.5.2. Cardiac Nuclear Medicine
      5.  
        • New single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cameras must have dual detectors.
        • For centers performing Cardiac Nuclear Imaging ONLY, single head detectors are acceptable.
        • Cardiac Nuclear Imaging Equipment must have:
          • Quantitative Analysis software
          • Cardiac Gating
          • EF (Ejection Fraction) Calculation software
          • Motion correction, back filter projection reconstruction, or line spread function software.
        • The following documentation must be available for inspection at the site at any time. The documents must be signed and dated by the individual performing the tests:
          • Preventive maintenance records
          • Log of all service records
          • Annual physicist’s report/performance testing. This report should include that equipment is functioning per manufacturer’s specifications and meets all applicable accreditation standards. Medical Physicist Reports must be examined and contemporaneously signed by the MD Director of Radiology at each site. The physician's signature and the date of the MD review must be placed on the report to reflect evidence of the review.
          • Records of initial acceptance testing for equipment installed within the last year.
          • All other Quality Control testing in accordance with the requirements of the ACR/IAC Accreditation Programs for Cardiac Nuclear Medicine.
    9. 11.6. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT)

      Pet Equipment

      • Sodium iodide detector systems are unacceptable regardless of configuration.
      • PET scanners used solely for cardiac and/or brain imaging can be utilized without CT.

      PET/CT Equipment

      • Sodium iodide detector systems are unacceptable regardless of configuration.
      • For current participating providers utilizing a PET only machine, fusion software, purchased or upgraded in the last 5 years, must be utilized on every case.
      • New applicants requesting participation with Horizon BCBSNJ’s Diagnostic Imaging Network may utilize a PET/CT machine with less than a 4 slice CT if it is never utilized as a diagnostic CT scanner and there is an additional qualifying CT scanner (minimum of 4 slices per rotation) at the site. If new equipment is purchased by participating providers it must meet the same standard.

      PET Quality Control and Preventative Maintenance

      • Quality Control testing must be in accordance with the requirements of the ACR/IAC PET Accreditation Programs
      • Phantom testing to be performed semi-annually but recommended to be performed quarterly with a phantom acceptable to the accrediting organization
      • The following documentation must be available for inspection at the site at any time. The document must be signed and dated by the individual performing the tests:
        • Preventive maintenance records
        • Log of all service records
        • All PET scanners have an annual physicist’s report/annual performance testing. This report should include that equipment is functioning per manufacturer’s specifications and meets all applicable accreditation standards. Medical Physicist Reports must be examined and contemporaneously signed by the MD Director of Radiology at each site. The physician's signature and the date of the MD review must be placed on the report to reflect evidence of the review.
        • Records of initial acceptance testing for all scanners installed within the last year.
        • All other Quality Control testing in accordance with the requirements of the ACR/IAC accreditation programs.
      • If new equipment is purchased by participating providers it must meet the same standard. This is inclusive of replacement equipment.
    10.  
    11. 11.7. Ultrasound and Echocardiography
    12.  
      1. 11.7.1. Ultrasound Equipment
      2.  
        • The equipment must have the appropriate transducers to be available for examinations offered by the practice as follows:
          • 3-5 MHz for Abdominal, Retroperitoneal. Pelvic, and Obstetrical examinations
          • 2-2.25 MHZ should be available for use in obese patients
          • Curved 7.0MHz Pediatric abdomen, renal and pelvic examinations
          • Linear 7.0 – 10.0 MHz Vascular examinations
          • Linear 12MHz minimum-Breast, thyroid, testicular, and small parts examinations
          • 5-10 MHz Endovaginal examinations
          • 9.0 MHz Endorectal
          • High frequency stick probe
          • 1.0 - 5 MHz Cardiac
          • Cardiac
        • Equipment must have documentation on site that states it conforms to all manufacturer specifications, meets all applicable accreditation standards, and has the most current software appropriate for the examinations performed at the site. This documentation must be performed annually. If the last software upgrade is more than seven (7) years old, written confirmation is required from the service engineer confirming that the unit has the most up-to-date software upgrade available.

          Ultrasound Quality Control and Preventative Maintenance
        • Quality Control testing in accordance with the requirements of the ACR/IAC/AIUM/ASBS accreditation programs.
        • The following documentation must be available for inspection at the site at any time. The documents must be signed and dated by the individual performing the tests:
          • Preventive maintenance records.
          • Log of all service records.
          • Documentation of routine Quality Control testing performed at least every 6 months either by medical physicist or service engineer.
          • Electrical and mechanical safety
          • Image uniformity
          • Sensitivity and penetration
          • Measurement of vertical and horizontal distance accuracy
          • Testing of the transducers
          • All other Quality Control testing in accordance with the requirements of the ACR/IAC accreditation programs.
      3.  
      4. 11.7.2. Echocardiography: Adult and Pediatric

        Echocardiography Quality Control and Preventative Maintenance

        • Quality Control testing in accordance with the requirements of the IAC Accreditation Program is required.
        • The following documentation must be available for inspection at the site at any time. The documents must be signed and dated by the individual performing the tests:
          • Preventive maintenance records
          • Log of all service records
          • Documentation of routine Quality Control testing performed at least every 6 months either by medical physicist or service engineer.
          • Electrical and mechanical safety
          • Image uniformity
          • Sensitivity and penetration
          • Measurement of vertical and horizontal distance accuracy
          • Testing of the transducers
          • All other Quality Control testing in accordance with the requirements of the IAC Accreditation Programs
    13.  
    14. 11.8. Mammography/Steriotactic
    15.  
      • Facilities performing screening and/or diagnostic mammography must be certified by the FDA, in accordance with the requirements of the MQSA.
      • Computer aided detection (CAD) is considered acceptable for analog and digital mammography units. (Note: Soft paddle technology is recommended for comfort of member.)
      • American College of Radiology Digital Breast Tomosynthesis accreditation for all units performing DBT must be obtained at initial application or through accreditation renewal by March 2021.
      • Must be staffed by a NJ licensed Radiographic Technologist.
    16.  
    17. 11.9. Bone Density/DXA Equipment
    18.  
      • DXA equipment must be capable of performing lumbar spine, hip, and forearm studies
      • Only fan beam or new pencil beam technology is acceptable. If pencil beam technology is used, the equipment must be manufactured after 2007.
      • All DXA scans must be performed by a radiologist, a certified ARRT -R, ARRT-BD, ARRT-N, ISCD-CBDT or NMTCB-N certified technologist, in accordance with applicable state regulations.

      Bone Densitometry Preventive Maintenance and Quality Control
      The following documentation must be available for inspection at the site at any time. The documents must be signed and dated by the individual performing the tests:

      • Preventive maintenance records: Quality control procedures must be performed and recorded by a trained technologist at least three (3) days a week and always before the first patient measurement of the day.
      • Log of all service records
      • Annual medical physicist’s report and performance testing. This report should include that equipment is functioning per manufacturer’s specifications and meets all applicable accreditation standards. Medical Physicist Reports must be examined and contemporaneously signed by the MD Director of Radiology at each site. The physician's signature and the date of the MD review must be placed on the report to reflect evidence of the review.
      • Records of initial acceptance testing for units installed within the last year.
      • All other Personnel Qualifications and Quality Control testing must be in accordance with the requirements of the ACR Practice Guideline for the Performance of Diagnostic Radiography and DXA.
    19.  
    20. 11.10. C-Arms and Special Procedures (Including Angiography)
    21.  
      • Must be staffed by a NJ licensed Radiographic Technologist.
      • Must maintain and provide upon request the OR/Surgi Center log indicating RT or physician present and performing the procedure.
      • Annual physicist's report/performance testing. This report should include that equipment is functioning per manufacturer's specifications and meets all applicable accreditation standards. Medical Physicist Reports must be examined and contemporaneously signed by the MD Director of Radiology at each site. The physician's signature and the date of the MD review must be placed on the report to reflect evidence of the review.
      • Must have a Quality Control and Improvement program as designated in the ACR guidelines for the performance of Diagnostic Radiography.
      • Comply with ACR guidelines for Fluoroscopy and interventional radiography.
    22.  
    23. 11.11. Dental Radiographic Studies
    24.  
      • Dental x-ray film must have an ISO Speed Range of 28.0 – 56.0 S, Film Speed “E”.
      • Cone Beam CT (CBCT) – CBCT must have a QA program in compliance with NJDEP regulations and comply with ACR guidelines for Diagnostic Radiography.
      • CBCT must comply with manufacture’s preventive maintenance and submit annual performance report to Radiology committee.
      • Software must have built in low-dose scanner preventive capabilities to prevent accidental radiation overexposure.
      • Film and x-ray unit must be in Compliance with ALARA principles.
      • Thyroid shields should be made available to all patients to reduce the exposure of background or scatter radiation.
    25.  
    26. 11.12. Radiation Oncology/Therapy
    27.  
      • Completed or implemented ASTRO/ACR Target Safely (2010) program.
      • Quality management program for radiation therapy equipment, simulators, treatment planning systems, and monitor unit calculation algorithms.
      • Annual physicist's report and performance testing. This report should include that equipment is functioning per manufacturer's specifications and meets all applicable accreditation standards.
      • Medical Physicist Reports must be examined and contemporaneously signed by the MD Director of Radiation Therapy at each site. The physician's signature and the date of the MD review must be placed on the report to reflect evidence of the review.
      • Must have a Quality Control and Improvement program as designated in the ASTRO/ACR guidelines for Radiation Therapy.
      • Comply with safety reporting of errors relating to therapy.
      • Documentation of compliance with AAPM TG-40, TG 142, TG-51
      • Documentation of treatment planning system quality assurance program TG- 53
      • Independent Verification of Output of each beam.
    28.  
    29. 11.13. Qualified Medical Physicists
    30.  
      • American Board of Radiology certified in Therapeutic Radiological Physics and Radiological Physics.
    31.  
    32. 11.14. Radiation Therapists and Simulation Staff
    33.  
      • Radiation therapists and simulation staff must fulfill state licensing requirements and should have American Registry of Radiologic Technology (ARRT) certification in radiation therapy.
    34.  
    35. 11.15. Dosimetrist
    36.  
      • Certification by the Medical Dosimetrist Certification Board is recommended.
    37. 12. ADDITIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE STANDARDS

      • The documentation and tracking of radiation exposure for each procedure in the patient's medical report is required and must be made available to the patient and or Horizon BCBSNJ as requested.
      • If available on equipment, the total amount of radiation the patient receives by mSv shall be recorded on the member’s chart for each exam. In addition, this data may be requested by Horizon BCBSNJ in collaboration with a radiation safety program and/or for the patient’s permanent electronic record. The information regarding the member’s radiation exposure may be shared with the member, provided an educational program is present and the results are explained by either a radiologist or trained, certified radiologic technologist.
      • All providers performing diagnostic radiology/imaging are required to participate in the "Image Gently and Image Wisely" programs. Requirements for and/or membership in the Image Gently and Image Wisely programs may be accessed via the ACR website where accreditation status is viewable.
      • A board certified radiologist must be immediately available to supervise cases, and/or respond to requests for protocol alterations by the technologist 100% of the time that any site is in operation. All contrast studies must be performed under the direct supervision of a board certified radiologist, or a NJ licensed physician trained in knowledge and treatment of contrast reactions. Physician's name and signature should be denoted on contrast consent form and available in patient's chart for review or audit.
      • The facility must comply with the requirements of HIPAA, Horizon BCBSNJ policies pertaining to HIPAA and must document appropriate employee training. Such documents must be available upon request for inspection by a representative of Horizon BCBSNJ or its designee.

    References:

    1. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (1988). Quality Assurance for Diagnostic Imaging Equipment (NCRP Report #99). Bethesda, Maryland.

    2. NCRP #102. Medical X-ray, Electron Beam and Gamma Ray Protection for Energies up to 50 MeV (Equipment Performance Design and Use).

    3. NCRP #100. Exposure of the U.S. Population from Diagnostic Medical Radiation.

    4. NCRP #91. Recommendations on Limits for Exposure to Ionizing Radiation.

    5. American Institute of Physics. American Association of Physics in Medicine (AAPM) Report #14. Performance Specifications and Acceptance Testing For X-ray Generators and Automatic Exposure Control Devices. (1985), New York, New York.

    6. AAPM Report #25. Protocols for Radiation Safety Surveys of Diagnostic Radiological Equipment.

    7. American College of Medical Physics. ACMP Report #1. Radiation Control and QA Surveys: Diagnostic Radiology.

    8. Food and Drug Administration (Code of Federal Regulations: Radiological Health) (Title 21 Chap. 1 Subchapter J) pp.1000-1050. Washington, D.C. US Government Printing Office.

    9. Havukainen R, Pirinen M. Patient dose and image quality in five standard x-ray examinations. Med Phys. May-Jun 1993; 20(3):813-7.

    10. Burkhart RL: A Basic Quality Assurance Program for Small Diagnostic Radiology Facilities. FDA - National Center for Devices and Radiological Health. 1983, Rockville, Maryland.

    11. The American College of Radiology (ACR), Accreditation, Guidelines and Standards.

    12. American College of Cardiology (ACC), Quality and Science Guidelines, Last Updated February 15, 2008.

    13. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM), Accreditation, Standards and Guidelines, 2005.

    14. ICAEL, Intersocietal Commission for the Accreditation of Echocardiography Laboratories, Accreditation and Standards.

    15. ICANL, Intersocietal Commission for the Accreditation of Nuclear Medicine Laboratories, Accreditation and Standards.

    16. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology (ASNC), Health Professionals, Accreditation, Guidelines and Standards.

    17. Federal Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Devices and Radiologic Health, Code of Federal Regulations,
      Subchapter J: Radiologic Health, Part 1000 General, Subpart C, Radiation Protection Recommendations,
      Subchapter H: Medical Devices, Part 892 Radiology Devices, Subpart B -Diagnostic Devices,
      Mammography Program, Subchapter I: Mammography Quality Standards Act, Part 900 Mammography, Last Updated April 1, 2006.

    18. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Nuclear Materials, Medical Uses Licensee Toolkit.

    19. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), Radiation Protection Program, Bureau of Radiological Health, Last Updated November 11, 2006, Certificate of Need and Acute Care Licensure, Last Updated 11/16/06.

    20. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), Ambulatory Care Accreditation, Joint Commission Standards, 2006.

    21. New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, N.J.A.C., Title 8, Chapter 43A, Standards for Licensure of Ambulatory Care Facilities, Last Updated May 20, 2006.

    22. NY State Department of Health, Permits, Licenses and Certification: Certificate of Need for Healthcare Facilities and Physicists Letter, Last Updated April 2006. Mammography Facilities.

    History:

    October 9, 2020: Previous medical policy content (Standards for Diagnostic Radiology/Imaging Facilities/Freestanding-Office including Surgi-Centers and Diagnostic Dental - Radiographic Imaging) was reformatted as Administrative Policy content and approved by the appropriate Horizon BCBSNJ Committee.

    HCM-PP-CRED-012-10092020